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603) First pies Food historians confirm ancient people made pastry.
Recipes, cooking techniques, meal presence and presentations varied according to culture and cuisine.
A piecrust used less flour than bread and did not require anything as complicated as a brick oven for baking.
More important, though, was how pies could stretch even the most meager provisions into sustaining a few more hungry mouths...
Cooking methods (baked or fried in ancient hearths, portable colonial/pioneer Dutch ovens, modern ovens), pastry composition (flat bread, flour/fat/water crusts, puff paste, milles feuilles), and cultural preference (pita, pizza, quiche, shepherd's, lemon meringue, classic apple, chocolate pudding).
All figure prominently into the complicated history of this particular genre of food.
The first pies were very simple and generally of the savory (meat and cheese) kind.
272) About pastry Food historians trace the genesis of pastry to ancient mediterranean paper-thin multi-layered baklava and filo.254) "If the basic concept of 'a pie' is taken to mean a mixture of ingredients encased and cooked in pastry, then proto-pies were made in the classical world and pies certainly figured in early Arab cookery.But those were flat affairs, since olive oil was used as the fat in the pastry and will not produce upstanding pies; pastry made with olive oil is 'weak' and readily slumps." ---Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson, 2nd edition, Tom Jaine editor [Oxford University Press: Oxford] 2006 (p.603) Ancient Roman recipes " [Baked picnic] Ham [Pork Shoulder, fresh or cured] Pernam The hams should be braised with a good number of figs and some three laurel leaves; the skin is then pulled off and cut into square pieces; these are macerated with honey.  Lay the dough over or around the ham, stud the top with the pieces of the skin so that they will be baked with the dough [bake slowly] and when done, retire from the oven and serve." ---Apicius, Book VII, IX, Apicius: Cookery and Dining in Imperial Rome, edited and translated by Joseph Dommers Vehling, facsimile 1936 edition [Dover Publications: Mineola NY] 1977 (p.