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The third period of independence began in 1991, when Ukraine gained its independence from the Soviet Union in the aftermath of its dissolution at the end of the Cold War.Ukraine has maintained its independence as a sovereign state ever since.By 4,500 BC, the Neolithic Cucuteni-Trypillian Culture flourished in a wide area that included parts of modern Ukraine including Trypillia and the entire Dnieper-Dniester region.During the Iron Age, the land was inhabited by Cimmerians, Scythians, and Sarmatians.
Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic.
In 2013, after the government of President Yanukovych had decided to suspend the Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement and seek closer economic ties with Russia, a several-months-long wave of demonstrations and protests known as the Euromaidan began, which later escalated into the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that led to the overthrow of President Yanukovych and his cabinet and the establishment of a new government.
These events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, and the War in Donbass in April 2014.
The first of these periods occurred briefly during and immediately after the German occupation near the end of World War I and the second occurred, also briefly, and also during German occupation, during World War II.
However, both of these first two earlier periods would eventually see Ukraine's territories consolidated back into a Soviet republic within the USSR.